第一篇 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?
When people argue about whether coffee is good for health, they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it food for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help you concentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.
Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees. At first, this increases production because more coffee bushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production come increased profits.
Unfortunately, deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local-wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides kill insects that eat coffee plant, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.
Fortunately, farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as "shade grown" and "bird friendly." Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. But we're paying for the health of the birds, the land, ourselves, and the planet. I think it's worth it.
31. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Farmers are changing the way they grow coffee.
B. Coffee is becoming more expensive to produce.
C. Shade-grow coffee is more expensive than sun-grow coffee.
D. People should buy shade-grown coffee.
32. The function of the word "Traditionally" in Paragraph 2 is to show_____.
A. the positive effects of coffee.
B. a change of coffee growth.
C. something that is the most important.
D. how coffee production used to be.
33.What does increased production of full-sun coffee bring about?
A. More insects.
B. Better quality coffee.
C. Larger farms.
D. Higher profits.
34. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
A. They buy more land from other farmers.
B. They cut down trees.
C. They move to another country.
D. They turn grassland into farmland.
35.The full-sun method may affect the following EXCEPT_____ full sun
第二篇 Across the Desert
The Sahara Desert is the largest desert in the world. It stretches across Africa from Senegal to Egypt. The Sahara Desert is an unfriendly environment. During the day it's very hot,and at night it's sometimes very cold. It is also difficult to find water in the Sahara.
In 2006，Kevin Lin, Ray Zahab, and Charlie Engle decided to do something very difficult. They made the decision to run across the Sahara Desert 4,300 miles (6,920 km).It seemed impossible to do, but they wanted to try. The three men liked to test themselves, and this would be a very big test.
On the morning of November, Kevin, Ray, and Charlie started their trip across the Sahara. Every morning they began running at 5:00.At 11 a.m. they stopped and rested until 5 p.m. Then they ran again until 9:30 in the evening. Each day they ran about 40 miles (64 km).Every day it was the same thing. They got up and ran. They listened to music on their iPods, and they ran and ran.
Kevin, Ray, and Charlie needed to eat a lot of food during their trip. Most people need about 2,000 calories of food each day. Kevin, Ray, and Charlie needed between 6,000 and 9,000 calories every day. That's a lot of food! They also needed to drink a lot of water.
The three men had some problems on their trip, and many times they wanted to quit and go home. It was often very hot(140°F/60°C) during the day, and the heat made them sick. Their legs and feet hurt. Sometimes it was very windy, and they couldn't see. One time they got lost. But they didn't quit. After 111 days, Kevin, Ray, and Charlie successfully finished their trip across the Sahara Desert. They hugged each other and put their hands on the water of the Red Sea. Then they ran to a hotel to take a long shower.
36,The Sahara Desert is not fit for people to live in because of its_____.
A. extreme weather
D. salty water
37,What does ‘a very big test’ in paragraph2 means____.
A. A competitive examination
B. A wise decision
C. A real challenge
D. A time-saving task
38. Kevin, Ray and Charlie_______.
A. rested at 5 pm every day
B. took a short break at noon
C. started their trip every morning
D. didn’t run in the evening
39, The three men realized that their trip was finished when they____.
A. saw the Red Sea
B. found a hotel
C. ate up all the food
D. drank all the water
40, What’s the reason for the success of their trip?
A. They prepared sufficient food
B. They never got lost.
C. They developed a good plan.
D. They never gave up.
第三篇 The Value of Tears
Tears can ruin make-up, bring conversation to a stop, and give you a runny nose. They can leave you embarrassed and without energy. However, crying is a fact of life, and tears are very useful. Even when you’re not crying, your eyes used to expressing emotion. These create a film over the eye's surface. This film contains a substance that protects your eyes against infection.
Tears relieve stress，but we tend to fight them for all sorts of reasons. "People worry about showing their emotions. They're afraid that once they lose control, they'll never get it back," explains psychologist Dorothy Rowe." As Children we were sometimes punished for shedding tears or expressing anger. As adults we still fear the consequences of showing emotions."
Almost any emotion-good or bad, happy or sad-can cause tears. Crying is a way that we release built-up emotions. Tears help you when you feel you are ready to explode because of very strong feelings. It may explain why people who are afraid to cry often suffer more heart attacks than people who cry more freely.
When some people become very stressed, however, they can't cry. They may be feeling shock, anger, fear, or grief, but they repress the emotion. "Everyone has the need to cry，" says? psychotherapist Vera Diamond. Sometimes in therapy sessions, patients participate in crying exercises. They practice crying so that they can get used to expressing emotion. Diamond says it's best to cry in safe, private places, like under the bedcover or in the car. That's because many people get uncomfortable when others cry in front of them. In fact, they may be repressing their own need to cry.
In certain situations, such as at work, tears are not appropriate. It’s good to hold back tears during a tense business discussion." But once you are safely behind closed doors, don't just cry," Diamond says. She suggests that you act out the whole situation again and be as noisy and angry as you like. It will help you feel better." And," she adds," once your tears have released the stress, you can begin to think of logical ways to deal with the problem."
Tears are a sign of our ability to feel. You should never be afraid to cry.
41, The word ‘film’ in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to_____.
42, Crying is useful in that it_____.
A. helps you not to explode.
B. eases heart attacks.
C. makes others comfortable
D. cleans your eyes.
43, According to Vera Diamond, crying should be___.
D. done in public.
44,What are you expected to do in a tense business discussion?
A. Hold back your tears
B. Cry in private
C. release your stress with tears
D. Find out the problems
45. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. How to release your stress
B. Ways to repress your emotion in public
C. How to fight tears in a business situation
D. Importance and necessity of crying
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