理工B 阅读理解 第二十二篇
Real World Robots
When you think of a robot, do you envision a shiny, metallic device having the same general shape as a human being, performing humanlike functions, and responding to your questions in a monotone voice accentuated by high-pitched tones and beeps? This is the way many of us imagine a robot, but in the real world, a robot is not humanoid at all. Instead a robot often is a voiceless, box-shaped machine that efficiently carries out repetitive or dangerous functions usually performed by humans. Today’s robot is more than an automatic machine that performs one task again and again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees of artificial intelligence—that is, a robot contains a computer program that tells it how to perform tasks associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, and learning from past experience.
A robot does not possess a human shape for the simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remaining balanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels and axles that roll and rotate. A robot even has limbs that swivel and move in combination with joints and motors. To find its way in its surroundings1, a robot utilizes various built-in sensors. Antennae attached to the robot’s base detect anything they bump into. If the robot starts to teeter as it moves on an incline, a gyroscope or a pendulum inside it senses the vertical differential. To determine its distance from an object and how quickly it will reach the object，the robot bounces beams of laser light and ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path2. These and other sensors constantly feed information to the computer, which then analyzes the information and corrects or adjusts the robot’s actions. As science and technology advance, the robot too will progress in its functions and use of artificial-intelligence programs.
envision v. 想象，预想
device n. 装置
accentuate v. 强调，重读
artificial intelligence n. 人工智能
limb n. 臂
antennae n. 天线
incline v. 倾斜
pendulum n. 钟摆
ultrasonic adj. 超声的
metallic adj. 金属的
monotone n. 单调的
humanoid adj. 像人的
axle n. 轮轴
rotate v. 旋转
swivel n. 旋转
teeter v. 摇晃
gyroscope n. 陀螺仪，回转仪
vertical n. 直立的
1.To find its way in its surroundings...：为了在周围找到路……
2.the robot bounces beams of laser light and ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path：机器人发射激光束和超声波，反射到障碍物上(以此来探知路径)。
1.Another good title for this passage would be
A Robots: Taking the Place of Humans.
B Artificial Intelligence Programs.
C Today’s Robots and How They Function.
D Modern-Day Sensors.
2.Artificial intelligence is
A the unnatural way in which robots move.
B a voiceless, box-shaped machine that performs repetitive tasks.
C sensors such as antennae and a gyroscope.
D a computer program that imitates human intellectual processes.
3.The last paragraph suggests that future robots will be
A more humanlike in behavior and actions.
B more like automatic machines.
C better able to move on inclines.
D better equipped with laser light sensors.
4.The writer begins the passage by comparing
A the shape of a human being with a box.
B a modem robot with a fictional robot.
C an imaginary machine with a human.
D a computer program with artificial intelligence.
5.The word humanoid means
A lacking human characteristics.
B anything having the appearance of a humanoid.
C being void or vacant.
D having a human form or characteristics.
2.D Artificial是“人工”的意思，intelligence是“智能”的意思。另外从文中得知，机器人使用artificial intelligence能够进行与人类类似的推理分析等活动，因此可知它是一种类似人类智能的计算机程序。
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